The basic components comprising a typical general-purpose system used for digital image processing are:

Image Sensors
  • It refers to sensing.
  • The image sensor captures incoming light, convert it into an electrical signal, measure that signal, and output it to supporting electronics.
  • An image sensor is a 2D array of light-sensitive elements that convert photons into electrons.
  • CCD (Charged Coupled Device) and CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Conductor) image sensors are widely used in image-capturing devices like digital cameras.
  • Image sensors have two elements that are required to capture digital images.
  • The first is a physical device (sensor) that is sensitive to the energy radiated by the object we wish to convert to image.
  • The second is a digitizer that is used for converting the output of a physical sensing device into digital form.
Specialized Image Processing Hardware
  • It consists of the digitizer and hardware that performs primitive operations, such as an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations in parallel on entire images.



  • The computer in an image processing system is a general-purpose computer and can range from a PC to a supercomputer.
Image Processing Software
  • Software for image processing consists of specialized modules that perform specific tasks.
  • A well-designed package also includes the capability for the user to write code.
Mass Storage
  • Mass storage refers to the storage of a large amount of data in persisting and machine-readable fashion.
  • The mass storage capability is a must in image processing applications.



Image Displays
  • Image display is the final link in the digital image processing chain.
  • Image displays are mainly colored TV monitors.
Hardcopy Devices
  • Various devices for recording images are Laser printers, film cameras, heat-sensitive devices, and digital units, such as optical and CD-ROM disks.
  • It is a required component to transmit image information over a networked computer.
  • Because of the large amount of data inherent in image processing applications, the key consideration in image transmission is bandwidth.